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PAPER

 

Paper os everywhere. We use paper for homework, money, checks, books, letters, packaging, kites, paper dolls, wallpaper, and braille books. We have paper towels, napkins, plates, cups, and handkerchiefs. Doctors put paper sheets on the examining table. Scientists use paper lab coats. Our knowledge is written on paper. This is changing now, with television, cassette tapes, and computers to spread and store information

 

Paper is made from trees, rice, wheat, cotton, corn, sugar cane, and other plants. There are about 7,000 kinds of paper

 

The Chinese invented paper in A.D. 105. They mixed the bark of a tree and rags with water, put a screen into the mixture, and lifted out a thin piece of wet paper. They dried the paper in the sun

 

The Chinese kept their secret of how to make paper until a war with Muslims in the ninth century. The Muslims took chinese papermakers back to their country. The art of papermaking soon spread throughout the Muslim world

 

The Mayan Indians in Central America and Pacific Islanders also discovered how to make paper, but their knowledge never spread to the rest of the world

 

For centuries, all paper was made by hand. Rags were the principal material. Then a French scientist watched a wasp chewing up pieces of wood. The wasp mixed the wood with chemicals from its mouth and made a paper nest. The scientist realized that people could make paper from wood too. Finally, in the eighteenth century, a Frenchman invented a machine to make paper from wood

 

Today most paper is made from wood. It is made by machine. Canada and the United States lead the world in papermaking

 

The word " paper " comes from papyrus. The ancient Egyptians used papyrus, a plant that grew in the Nile River, to write on

 

The paper bag is an interesting invention. Before paper bags were invented, grocers and salespeople in stores had to wrap each item in paper and tie it with string. Other customers had to wait. Then they hired boys to make bags by hand, but this also took a long time. In 1884, a woman named Mattie Knight invented a machine that could make a bag with a square bottom and pleated sides. The bag stands up, but it can also lie flat. The salesclerk just shakes her wrist to open the bag. Because the bag stands up, it is easy to put things in it

 

Paper is very common in our lives, and we don't even think about it, but it is a wonderful invention

 

Source : Concepts and Comments

دسته ها : English Readings
پنج شنبه هجدهم 12 1390 22:10
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